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Application Of Information And Communication Te...

Background and purpose: The increase in use of everyday information and communication technologies can lead to the need for health professionals to incorporate technology use competencies in practice. Information and communication technologies has the potential to improve participation in daily life among people with disability. The aim was to review and describe evidence of the use of information and communication technology, including mobile technology, for improving participation in everyday life. A secondary aim was to describe how study outcomes were related to participation.Materials and methods: A scoping review methodology was used to identify studies through databases as MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library. Thereafter, the studies were screened and assessed for inclusion.Results: Eleven studies were included. The most commonly used technology were videoconferencing and the telephone. Ten of the 11 studies reported a change in participation in everyday life. Participation was mainly described as involvement in a life situation or related to activities of daily living.Conclusion: Delivering an intervention to improve participation through information and communication technology can be a valid option in rehabilitation. There is a need to measure and describe the intervention and its outcomes in relation to a definition of participation in future studies.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe use of an information and communication technology application seems to be as good as the face-to-face intervention.There is a need for defining the concept of participation related to outcome measures in future studies.

Application of Information and Communication Te...

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications[1] and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information.

The phrase "information and communication technologies" has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s.[5] The abbreviation "ICT" became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997,[6] and then in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. However, in 2012, the Royal Society recommended that the use of the term "ICT" should be discontinued in British schools "as it has attracted too many negative connotations".[7] From 2014, the National Curriculum has used the word computing, which reflects the addition of computer programming into the curriculum.[8]

The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, and some 5 zetta bytes in 2014.[15][16] This is the informational equivalent to 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from the earth to the moon in 2007, and the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun in 2014.The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007.[15]The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007,[15] and some 100 exabytes in 2014.[17]The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3.0 10^8 MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10^12 MIPS in 2007.[15]

Although humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the earliest writing systems were developed,[3] the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)."[4] Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[4]

Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete.[19] Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay-line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line.[20] The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, which was based on a standard cathode ray tube.[21] However, the information stored in it and delay-line memory was volatile in the fact that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932[22] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.[23]

Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception.[35] It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.[27]

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years.[27]

In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems".[44][page needed] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded, and replaced.

The United Nations considers one of its Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) to "significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the internet in least developed countries by 2020."

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is the convergence of computing, telecommunication and governance policies for how information should be accessed, secured, processed, transmitted and stored.

Schools and government agencies are encouraged (and sometimes required) to create information and communication technology policy plans that document how they plan to reduce the digital divide and improve data literacy in the classroom and the workplace.

The Oklahoma Electronic Information Technology Accessibility (EITA) Act was passed into law in 2004, which was modeled after Section 508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act. This law resulted in the creation of standards designed to make information and communication technology accessible for persons with disabilities. When the State of Oklahoma first published its standards in July 2005, it made Oklahoma one of the few states at the time to have its own standards aimed at improving the accessibility of information and communication technology used by the state.

Since that time, rapid technological advancements have occurred in our world. iPads and smartphones are examples of devices that are in wide use today-yet were not in use at the time Oklahoma adopted its information and communication technology standards. For Oklahoma to continue to be a leader in providing accessible technology to all of its citizens, it is necessary to update its standards.

Effective January 18, 2018, the federal Section 508 standards were refreshed in order to update information and communication technology accessibility requirements. One of the most significant changes was to incorporate the technical requirements of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 in reference to accessibility of websites and other digital content such as software applications and electronic documents. This was important, because the previous Section 508 standards were outdated.

By adopting standards based on refreshed Section 508 standards-which includes both information and communication technology-the State of Oklahoma will make government more transparent, available, and useful for those with disabilities, in accordance with the purpose of Oklahoma law. Therefore, effective March 1, 2020, the Information Technology Accessibility Standards as published July 1, 2005 and revised on June 2012, shall be repealed and replaced with the Information and Communication Technology Accessibility Standards as contained in this document.

These standards are intended to advise agencies on the procedures necessary to ensure compliance with Oklahoma law requiring information and communication technology accessibility and related standards. The purpose of the law indicates that state agencies shall ensure that information and communication technology allows employees, program participants and members of the general public with disabilities access to and use of information and data unless an undue burden would be imposed on the agency or fundamental alterations to the information and communication technology are required. The law applies to agencies when developing, procuring, maintaining or using information and communication technology, or when administering contracts or grants that include the procurement, development, upgrading or replacement of information and communication technology. The law applies to both paid and free third-party products and services. 041b061a72


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